The Alliance for UDRR (AUDRR) needs to be
built by collaboration among stakeholders in different sectors and disciplines in each city.
For Kobe, the local AUDRR is established by RCUSS. By having a common framework for UDRR, a local, regional and/or international collaboration among UDRR specialists can be achieved more systematically by identifying and evaluating the vulnerabilities of their cities in each category through a common under- standing.
The RCUSS UDRR training has produced an international network of former participants in Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and also in the Latin American regions, with which they share similar climates, cultures and sometimes languages.
By promoting collaboration among participants in RCUSS training and/or those interested in the RCUSS framework within each region, it is hoped that a better and more coherent UDRR knowledge and strategy may be developed for each region.
The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 was adopted by UN Member States on 18 March 2015 at the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in Sendai City, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. The Sendai Framework is the first major agreement of the post-2015 development agenda, with seven targets and four priorities for action.
The Framework aims to achieve the substantial reduction of disaster risk and losses in lives, livelihoods and health and in the economic, physical, social, cultural and environmental assets of persons, businesses, communities and countries over the next 15 years.
Disaster risk reduction
of urban and built environment is essential to guarantee the healthy and
industrious developments of core cities in developing countries. Specialists in
Urban Disaster Risk Reduction (UDRR)
are, however, not readily available because developing such specialists
requires acquiring a comprehensive knowledge and understanding of both the
scientific and the socio- economic conditions driving urban risks. Further, it
requires a full heart of devotion and a commitment to bridging the people
Based on the
experiences of the 1995 Kobe Earthquake, that were typical of urban disaster
& recovery, a group of UDRR specialists, from Asia, Middle East & North
Africa (MENA) and Latin America regions, have been trained through a concerted
effort between JICA Hyogo and RCUSS of
Kobe University. For a period of 8 years (2004-2011), more than 100
participants have completed two months training in Japan. Initiatives have
started from the group of those training participants to hold regional
workshops to promote mutual understandings of UDRR issues in each region and to
further strengthen the international human network among these UDRR specialists
and concerned organizations. As those three regions have their own unique
cultural and historical commonalities, the regional solidarity plays a central
role in building DRR strategy. So far, three workshops have been completed in
Asia, MENA and LATAM as indicated below:
1. ASIA regional workshop at Islamabad, Pakistan, May 2-5, 2011
Building in Vulnerable Community, learning through 2005
Pakistan Kashmir EQ
& 2010 Pakistan Flood Disasters and Recoveries
2. MENA regional workshop at Ankara/Istanbul, Turkey, December 1-3,
Development and Renovation based on Seismic Risk in MENA
through 1999 Turkey Earthquake and Recoveries
3. LATAM regional workshop at Bogota, Colombia, March 5-7, 2012
Theme: UDRR in Latin
America & Information Sharing
1) Discuss the UDRR strategy
& topics needed for all regions; topics such as assessment of urban risk
& vulnerability, seismic design of housing, and safety of schools and
2) Discuss the support
& collaboration on the recovery from recent disasters,
3) Discuss the future
strategy of UDRR network & activity among the Asia, MENA, and Latin America groups and the international
establishedin order to strengthen the
international network of ex-JICA group trainees on "DRR Strategy for Urban
Earthquake and to maintain global network.
TRI DRR PLATFORM's side event "TRI DRR Platform Activities" will be on 17 MAY 2016 TUESDAY 13.00-15.00
You can register the event from:
you will click on the tab for TRI DRR Platform Activities at the middle of the list.
Please announce for this important event to your colleagues and Ex-JICA Participants as well.
TRI-DRR PLATFORM extend a proposal for side event at the 2016 Understanding Risk Forum in Istanbul in May 2016
TRI-DRR PLATFORM established in order to strengthen the international network of ex-JICA group trainees on "DRR Strategy for Urban Earthquake and to maintain global network. (http://www.tridrr.org/ )
For this purpose TRI-DRR PLATFORM Team join many international events such as 2012 AIWEST-DR Banda Aceh, Indonesia , 2011 Global Platform for DRR, 2013 Global Platform for DRR, 2015 UNWCDR, Japan.
It is vital to have a strong and effective networking scheme that would unite a global efforts of urban earthquake DRR by those ex-JICA training participants.
Therefore, in UR2016 TRI-DRR PLATFORM plan to explain its existing and future projects on DRR.
2012 Syiah Kuala University Tsunami and Disaster Mitigation Research Center (TDMRC) and Kobe University Research Center for Urban Safety and Security (RCUSS) held a two-day workshop on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster and Reconstruction on December 4th & 5th, 2012 at Hyogo Building Syiah Kuala University Campus Banda Aceh Indonesia. The objectives of the workshop were:
-To report on field trips and reconnaissance studies undertaken by several international experts to the tsunami-affected areas,
-To discuss the current conditions related to the reconstruction in Aceh, and
-To identify mitigation approaches to incorporate in the reconstruction process in Aceh.
One important objective of the workshop is to discuss a framework for scientific and technical support to the reconstruction based on a collaborative undertaking between international organizations, national experts and local resources partnering with key agencies and organizations involved in the reconstruction.
The first agenda of the 2012 AIWST-DR is a continuation of the international workshop organized by Syiah Kuala University of Banda Aceh which has been started in 2006 and jointly organized by Kobe University after the 2004 December Sumatra Tsunami disaster that has stricken many countries around the Indian Ocean. This international workshop aims to integrate all the efforts of the 2004 Indian Ocean or Sumatra tsunami hit countries to promote better recovery and reconstruction, and to share the knowledge of not only scientific and engineering but also of socio-economic, medical, cultural, educational, and other aspects related to disaster risk reduction based on the Disaster. Through a continuous workshop over a decade, it is hope that a sound strategy for "Building Back Better" from a catastrophic disaster is to be implemented in those cities and countries hit by disaster.
The first day of the seminar will be devoted to multi-disciplinary reconnaissance reports from international experts, experts from Japan, Central/Local Goverment, Syiah Kuala University representatives and ex-JICA group trainees on "DRR Strategy for Urban Earthquake" that was organized by Kobe Univ. & JICA Hyogo from 2004 to 2011.
Welcome address from Organizing Committee, TDMRC (Director Dr. M. Dirhamsyah), Kobe University Prof. Yasuo Tanaka, Deputy Rector of Syiah Kuala University ( Prof.Dr.Darusman)
Keynote Speech: Lecture on Recovery Status of Banda Aceh over the past 8 years- Dr. Moh. Hanief Arie Setianto Deputi II UKP-PPP
Panel Session I: Recovery studies on the recent Great East Japan EQ & Tsunami
Prof. Yoshimitsu Shiozaki (A Sudy on the 2011 GEJET recovery )
Prof. Yasuo Tanaka (A Study on the 2011 GEJET regarding Recovery & Reconstruction of Infrastructures)
Dr. Eiko Ishikawa (A Study on the 2011 GEJET recovery)
Dr. Akira Miyasada (A Study on the 2011 GEJET recovery)
Panel Session II: Recovery studies on the Indian Ocean Tsunami
Dr. M. Dirhamsyah on TDMRC
Dr. Ir. Indra, M. P./Dr. Ir. Agussabti, M. Si./Dr. Nazamuddin, Se. E. (Socio-Economic Recovery of Aceh after 8 years eartquake and tsunami disaster)
Ninil R.M. Jannah (Education and Comunity Recovery in Indonesia)
Dr. Togu Pardede (post-tsunami village and community development)
Panel Session III: Recovery studies on other disasters Dr. Khairul Munadi
Dr. Kambod Amini Hosseini (A review on challenges and experiences in temporary housing and recovery in recent earthquakes of Iran)
Dr. Alpaslan Kuzucuoglu (A review on Turkey’s recovery from the 1999 Turkey Earthquake & DRR)
Dr. Davis Fuentes (A review on Chile's recovery from the 2010 Chile Earthquake & DRR)
Dr. Teuku Faisal Fathani (Review on recovery of Merapi disaster and early warning system for landslide)
The workshop was open to all organizations, institutions and professionals who are involved or have a keen interest to contribute to the reconstruction of the Tsunami affected area, and in particular to Banda Aceh.
Japanese researchers presented about “Recovery studies on the recent Great East Japan EQ & Tsunami”. They explained general information about Great Hanshin Awaji EQ (Mw 6,9) and GEJET (Mw 9.0). They also emphasized temporary and permanent housing activities, planning issue (relocating households etc.) , economic development and education. The group tried to explore possibilities for making its knowledge and expertise available to agencies in charge of the disaster management and to transfer this knowledge to national and local experts.
Temporary housing and permanent housing in Japan after disaster.
Ex-JICA participants from Turkey, Iran and Chile presented Turkey Kocaeli (1999) and others (Düzce, Van) Earthquakes, Iran Bam (2003) and other Earthquakes (Manjil-Roudbar, Ardabil, Ghaen, Avaj, Silakhor), Chile Earthquake
Regarding to Indonesia Scale, Officials presented recent disaster which occured in Indonesia. (Aceh tsunami (2005), Alor Earthquake (2005), Yogyakarta Earthquake (2006), Hot mud eruption Sidoarjo-LAPINDO (2006), Jakarta flooding (February 2007) and recovery plans.
The earthquake was caused by subduction and triggered a series of devastating tsunamis along the coasts of most landmasses bordering the Indian Ocean, killing over 230,000 people in fourteen countries, and inundating coastal communities with waves up to 30 meters (98 ft) high. It was one of the deadliest natural disasters in recorded history. Indonesia was the hardest-hit country, followed by Sri Lanka, India, and Thailand. (Paris, R.; Lavigne F., Wassimer P. & Sartohadi J. (2007)
Massive destruction occured along 800 coastal line. Damage assesment was: 635.384 people displaced, 127.720 people killed and 93.285 missing, 139.195 houses destroyed, 22 sea ports, 119 bridges, 2.618 km roads, 669 government buildings, 3.415 school buildings, 517 health centers, 1.089 religious facilities destroyed, 20.000 ha fish ponds, 13.828 fishing boats destroyed, 73.869 ha agriculture land, 104.500 SMEs, 167.228 students lost their schools, 1.927 teachers died. Indonesian officials from Central/Local Goverment and Researchers emphasize recovery activities after disasters which struck Indonesia.
Representatives of the various agencies and institutions regroup for a round table discussion aimed:
-10th year Commeration of Indian Ocean tsunami Disaster
-Continuation AIWEST DR and developing a framework for collaborative participation.
Field Trip to Tsunami Recovery Sites:
The second day site visiting is organized. Participants visited tsunami affected areas and examined recovery activities. Kapal di Atas Rumah-Lampulo: The erathquake and tsunami disaster of 26th of december 2004 destroyed whole infrastuctures in Banda Aceh,and because of the tsunami wave, a wooden boat was in dock area in Krueng Aceh River in Lampulo. The wooden boat has 25 m length, 5.5 m. Width and 20 tons of weight. The earthquake and tsunami disaster has stranded the boat to the housing in Lampulo, which was approximately located 1 km away from the dock area. 56 people survived in the boat because of this incident. Municipality designed around it as open air memorial park.
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque: The Mosque is Aceh’s inheritance from the Sultan Iskandar Muda era. It was built in 1612. The tsunami waves that struck Aceh submerged the mosque. While buildings nearby were heaviliy damaged, The Grand Mosque sustained only minor damages and was a refuge fort he thousands who fled to safety.
Museum Tsunami Aceh: The Museum in memorail of the tsunami, which took approximately 240.000 victims in Nanggroe Aceh Darusselam on 26 December 2004. Detailed planning fort he tsunami monument and site started in august 2006 and the museum was built on approximately 10.000 square meters of land located near center of Banda Aceh with a budget of US $ 14.000.000.
PLTD Apung: This electricity generator barge was docked at the Ulee Lheue port when the tsunami lifted it off the shore and it landed in a crowded housing settlement at Gampong Punge Blang Cut. The wave carried this 2.500 ton, 1600 m2 vessel four kilometers inland.
From the top of the vessel, visitors can spot the BMW “edu park”, set up to provide interactive tsunami education to locals. The 4500 square meter park is equipped wwith tools that educate the people about tsunami and tell the sequence of a tsunami in a clear and understandable manner. This park clearly contributes to the effort of a community based early warning system.
Kuburan Massal: Mass Grave is visited by participants. Several areas were selected for mass graves. During the first few days in the aftermath the disaster there was an urgent need to bury the remains of the dead. These mass grave sites dedicated to tsunami vistims.
Syiah Kuala University Tsunami and Disaster Mitigation Research Center (TDMRC): TDMRC is a center for data, information, research work and consultation on all aspects of disaster to help increase disaster preparedness among the Acehnese people. This research facility aims to anticipate future tsunami along the Aceh coast and was established by the provincial goverment and run by Syiah Kuala University. In addition, the TDMRC facilities act as an escape building in case of tsunami and related disasters. There are five other escape building areas, located in Pidie, Lhokseumawe, Bireuen, Aceh Jaya and West Aceh.
Tsunami Height Memorial Poles: Memorial Poles indicate tsunami waves location and height of tsunami waves. This Project carried out by Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Team (JETT). Measuring ground height and position by barometer and GPS device. And also some education programs are organized with this project.
Buddha Tsuchi New Housing Project: Chinese-Indonesian Friendship Village”. Whereas much housing has been reconstructed on the devastated plain, the idea of this village must have been to rebuild out of reach of any future tsunami. The hillside looked stony and infertile and must have been uninhabited before. The new village has been well implemented, complete with roads, electricity and water supply. Indonesia-China Friendship Village located on the hill of Desa Neuheun in Mesjid Raya sub-district, Aceh Besar, about 17 kilometers from Banda Aceh. The government of China built 606 Type 42 houses on 22.4 hectares of land. The residents of the village lost their homes in the tsunami on 26 December 2004, and come from various professional and ethnic backgrounds, including fishermen, becak (motorbike pedicab) drivers, traders, employees, and entrepreneurs
Mesjid Raya: Various housing being constructed in this area. It is located about 17 kilometers from Banda Aceh. Permanent housing projects and residentual problems are examined.
Mangrove Planting Project: By the tsunami in 2004 human lives, homes were lost, educational and economic structures were destroyed, and one hundred percent of the local fish ponds and mangrove forests were destroyed or heavily damaged. As a result, a large portion of the population lost their livelihoods and income. The mangrove ecosystem was in fair condition and covered a large area before the tsunami, but was completely destroyed after. All (100%) of the mangrove forests were lost, swept away by the tsunami. According to respondents from the community, small fish, shrimp, crabs, scallops, and oysters were easily obtained when there was a mangrove forest (before the tsunami), but are very difficult to obtain now. During rehabilitation and reconstruction, environmental repairs were conducted, including the planting of mangroves in coastal areas
2012 AIWEST –DR DECLARATION Memorandum of Understanding
The -7th Annual International Workshop and Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster and Recovery (AIWEST-DR) 2012 was successfully held at Syiah Kuala University in Banda Aceh, Indonesia on December 4th 2012. Following three technical sessions during the day, a round table meeting is held to discuss the future action of AIWEST-DR and necessary activities to promote DRR ( Disaster Risk Reduction).
We, the participants of the round table meeting, encourage the Tsunami and Disaster Mitigation Research Center (TDMRC) of Syiah Kuala University to follow-up further activities to promote DRR based on the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami disaster.
Further we would like try to support the TDMRC to take the following follow-up action plans for DRR;
1. Endorsing TDMRC to organize the future AIWEST DR program to be held at least annually by 2014 depending on the available resources, with the aims:
To share experience, knowledge and lesson learnt about the disaster risk management from the Sumatran tsunami disaster among the other earthquake and tsunami-disaster-prone countries that will make difference for future mitigation strategy.
To share experience on disaster preparedness through educational system in the earthquake and tsunami-disaster-prone countries. To enhance public awareness on how to survive the tsunami disaster and to take into account the evacuation strategy, including for city transport as well as for children, elderly and disable people.
To share experiences on technological development on building either temporary shelter or permanent housing that meet the condition of the earthquake-prone and tsunami-prone area.
To promote the concept of monitoring and early warning system that are decentralized so local government can have direct control to the disaster preparedness. To expand the networking of internet training as a tool for early warning system among the stakeholders involved in disaster preparedness actions, as well as to enhance public awareness on disaster mitigation strategy.
To maintain Science-based disaster risk management strategy and to inform the output of AIWEST DR to the responsible government representatives in order to make the disaster management strategy can be well-implemented.
To follow up the results of scientific discussion during the AIWEST DR 2012 into declaration to continue supporting the scientific-based and contextual to the socio-economic and cultural background that can be understandable to the society.
2. Endorsing TDMRC to organize the 10th year Indian Ocean tsunami commemoration as the momentum to look back on the success and failure story of the past 10 years of the iconic tsunami event of the 21st Century, through the following potential action plans:
To assign task force and to propose the precise activity plan for the 10th commemoration of tsunami December 2004 (within 3 (three) months)
To use the momentum to suggest the ‘National Day’ of Sumatra Tsunami disaster and to make the memorial day to be part of the educational curriculum for school children and society. To develop annual drill program.
To engage the national and provincial government in financing the commemoration as the follow up of the Yogyakarta declaration on the 5th AMCDRR.
To organize conference that invites all stakeholders involved during the tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction.
To initiate (mangrove) tree plantations as a means of coastal protection that will represent the number of the tsunami disaster victims as the way to pass the tsunami education to the next generation.
3. To endorse future collaborative works among stakeholders involved in AIWEST DR. DRR proposals to attain external supports from potential donors, such as international organizators, NGO, national and local governments, and other institutions, can be produced through the network of AIWEST-DR participants.
7th AIWEST-DR 2012 Annual International Workshop & Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Theme: Sustaining Lessons Learnt from Post Great East Japan EQ and Indian Ocean Tsunami Disaster Recoveries http://aiwest-dr.org/2012/ December 4-5, 2012 Dayan Dawood Academic Activity Center (ACC) Syiah Kuala University Banda Aceh, Indonesia Committee and Organizer Steering Committee • Prof. Yasuo Tanaka (Kobe University, Japan) • Dr. M. Dirhamsyah (TDMRC-Syiah Kuala University Indonesia) • Dr. Idwan Suhardi (Ministry of Research And Technology Indonesia) • Prof. Friedemann Wenzel (CEDIM, Karlsruhe University-Germany) • Prof. Louise Comfort (University of Pittsburgh, USA) • Dr. Ridwan Djamaluddin (Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, Indonesia) • Prof. Samsul Rizal (Syiah Kuala University, Indonesia) • Prof. Syamsul Rizal (Syiah Kuala University, Indonesia) • Dr. Danny Hilman (LIPI, Indonesia) Since its first commencement in 2006 following the giant Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004, AIWEST-DR is regularly hosted by TDMRC and partners with supports from various DRR stakeholders, reflecting the high level of interest and participation in this international scientific workshop. This workshop is increasingly important considering the recurrence of catastrophic disasters in the world, such as the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami 2011. 7THAIWEST-DR 2012 is intended to provide an opportunity to discuss how academia, governments and other organizations involved in DRR activities can work together to build back better disaster resilient society and to promote DRR through reconstruction by linking the Indian Ocean region with other disaster hit cities and countries. In this workshop, we focus on the lessons learnt and best practices from the recovery process of 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, 2011 Great East Japan EQ & tsunami, and other disasters in the world that workshop participants present.
9 th International Annual Workshop and Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster and Recovery, AIWEST-DR 2014 (2014/10/22-24)
Subject: 10th Year Anniversary of the 2004 Indonian Ocean Tsunami.
Location: Banda Aceh City, Aceh Province, Indonesia (2014/10/22-24).
On 22 – 24 October, four members of IRIDeS – Prof. Osamu Murao (Regional and Urban Reconstruction Research Division), Assoc. Prof. Aiko Sakurai, Assist. Prof. Sébastien Boret (Disaster Information, Management and Public Collaboration Division) and Assist. Prof. Elizabeth Maly (Human and social Response Research Division) – took part in the Annual International Workshop and Expo on Sumatra Tsunami Disaster and Recovery (AIWEST) held by the Tsunami and Disaster Mitigation Research Center (TDMRC) of Syiah Kuala University in Aceh, Indonesia. This event commemorated the 10th anniversary of the tsunami, which saw the loss of hundreds of thousands of lives on
December 26, 2004. Among the special guests, Prof. Yasuo Tanaka from Kobe University gave a convincing lecture on the role and the responsibility of universities towards disaster risk reduction.
risk reduction in an urban environment is essential to ensure the sustainable
development of cities in developing countries. Specialists in reducing urban
disaster risk (UDRR) are not readily available, because the formation of them
requires a broad knowledge of science and understanding of socio-economic
conditions that lead to risks urban. It also requires a heart full of devotion
and commitment to save people.
Based on the
experience of the Kobe earthquake in 1995, which was a clear pattern of urban
disaster and recovery, a group of specialists UDRR, Asia, Middle East and North
Africa (MENA), and Latin America, have been trained through a joint effort
between JICA Hyogo Research Center for Urban Safety - RCUSS Kobe University.
For a period of eight years (2004-2011), more than 100 participants have
completed two months of training in Japan. The group of participants has
promoted regional workshops to promote mutual understanding of the issues in
each region UDRR and thus further strengthen the international network among
these specialists UDRR and organizations.
contains the policies, objectives and activities to be developed by the
Association of Ex - JICA Alumni of the "Strategy for Earthquake Disaster
Mitigation Mega-Urban", with support from RCUSS Kobe University, in order
to give effect to the priorities set out in the Hyogo Framework for Action (Ensure that disaster risk reduction
(DRR) is a national and local priority with a strong institutional basis for
implementation.) as well as the seventh Millennium Development Goal (Ensuring environmental sustainability.) in accordance with
the Disaster Risk Management – GRD (Disasters can wipe out any hope of developing sustainable urban and
rural environments. If no policies are defined and implemented, it will be
impossible to achieve the goal of improving the lives of at least 100 million
slum dwellers by 2020.).
a. Lack of
critical mass of specialists trained in disaster risk reduction in the level
technicians, professionals and executives in different countries and regions.
The culture of disaster prevention is not developed in the general population.
disaster management models are based on the management of the emergency and the
help of the authorities, it is rare that there local groups trained and
prepared to deal with disaster risks.
disaster risk management does not incorporate scientific advances in technology.
d. There is no
universal access to a Web portal for Training and Education Disaster Risk
Management, and most are available in English.
1. Create an
NGO for undertaking the proposed objectives of the meetings of Pakistan 2011,
Turkey 2011 and Colombia 2012.
financial and human resources to sustain the organization.
achieving development goals and activities through proper utilization of
made at the meeting of Pakistan, it seems appropriate for the development of
the organization that arises (Fig)
The NGO (name to be assigned) will be the framework responsible
for planning, organizing, coordinating, directing and supervising the policy to
propose international forums related to scientific and technical
activities-operative established under the Risk Management Disaster. Monitors
and evaluates the implementation of this policy and, if applicable
international standardization proposed
Being an organization that encourages, develops,
promotes the process of disaster risk management through hazard identification,
establishment of vulnerability and risk assessment. This process should be
encouraged to society as a whole and particularly to the poor population and
authorities of local governments in the areas most likely to suffer the ravages
1. Creating an
organization international, regional (Asia, MENA and LATAM) and national in at
least two countries in each region during 2012-2013.
projects to obtain financing at the level of international cooperation and
3. Develop a
training program for 2012.
regional workshops to strengthen alumni. (1 in 2012).
5. Create or
link to a platform to centralize and share information
- Name of the program: Training course for Latin America in Reducing Urban Disaster Risk.
- Timeframe: 2012 to 2015 (four years).
- General Purpose: To train local and national institutions of Latin America in Reducing
Urban Disaster Risk.
- Specific Objectives (according to the minutes of the meeting Bogotá 2012):
4.1. Develop training program
4.2. Conduct training at local
and national Latin America
4.3 Creating a platform for
5.1. Develop a database of ex
JICA fellow interested in participating in the project, with each profile, experience,
and possible subject of the course.
5.2. Develop detailed project
program and courses, subjects, duration, speakers, costs, etc.
5.3. Building two workshops
for former fellows would conferencing training program and setting the
5.4. Eight training courses
for 15 to 20 days, two each year, one in April and one in October, where the
course is in every country in Latin America (the management of the country
would also through the ex-trainees), the Alumni speakers would be and some of
the teachers we've had (the course will be in Spanish, translation required)
Disaster risk reduction of urban and built environment is essential to guarantee the healthy and industrious developments of core cities in developing countries.
Specialists in Urban Disaster Risk Reduction (UDRR) are, however, not readily available because developing such specialists requires acquiring a comprehensive knowledge and understanding of both the scientific and the socio-economic conditions driving urban risks. Further, it requires a full heart of devotion and a commitment to bridging the people together.
Based on the experiences of the 1995 Kobe Earthquake, that were typical of urban disaster & recovery, a group of UDRR specialists, from Asia, Middle East & North Africa (MENA), and Latin America regions, have been trained through a concerted effort between JICA Hyogo and RCUSS of Kobe University. For a period of 8 years (2004-2011), more than 100 participants have completed two months training in Japan. Initiatives have started from the group of those training participants to hold regional workshops to promote mutual understandings of UDRR issues in each region and to further strengthen the international human network among these UDRR specialists and concerned organizations. As those three regions have their
own unique cultural and historical commonalities, the regional solidarity plays a central role in building DRR strategy. So far, two workshops have been completed in Asia and MENA as indicated below. The Latin America workshop organized on March 5-7 2012 at Bogota, Colombia to complete the linkage among these regional UDRR efforts.
1. Asia regional workshop at Islamabad, Pakistan, May 2-5, 2011
Theme: Capacity Building in Vulnerable Community, learning through 2005
Pakistan Kashmir EQ & 2010 Pakistan Flood Disasters and Recoveries
2. MENA regional workshop at Ankara/Istanbul, Turkey, December 1-3, 2011
Theme: Urban Development and Renovation based on Seismic Risk in MENA
region, learning through 1999 Turkey Earthquake and Recoveries
The objectives of the Latin America workshop are as follows;
1) Discuss the UDRR strategy & topics needed for Latin America region; topics
such as assessment of urban risk & vulnerability, seismic design of housing,
and safety of schools and hospitals.
2) Discuss the support & collaboration on the recovery from recent disasters such
as the 2010 Haiti Earthquake, the 2010 Chile Earthquake, and the 2011 the Great
East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami
3) Discuss the future strategy of UDRR network & activity among the Asia,
MENA, and Latin America groups and the international organizations.
Dates & Place: March 5-7, 2012. Hotel near FOPAE office, Bogota, Colombia
Day 1 (March 4): Arrivals of participants to Bogota
Day 2 (March 5): Opening remarks (UNDP, UNISDR, FOPAE, JICA, RCUSS),
Presentations on Haiti, Chile and Japan EQs disasters and recoveries. Reports
from Colombia, and other countries.
Day 3 (March 6): Site visits to informal housing around Bogota, Urban situation of
Bogota, and visit to FOPAE office
Day 4 (March 7): Workshop (Presentations and discussions on the UDRR strategy
& topics needed for Latin America region, and Bogota visits. Future
collaboration among the Asia, MENA, and Latin America groups and the
support of international organizations.)
Day 5 (March 8): Departure from Bogota
• Ex-JICA participants from Latin America countries (Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Venezuela)
• The leader or coordinator from the Asia and the MENA regions
• Representatives from FOPAE, Bogota, Colombia
• Representatives from UNDP, UNISDR, World Bank and other international organizations
• International UDRR experts (Prof. Louise Comfort of Pittsburgh Univ. and Dr.
Fouad Bendimerad of EMI, Prof. Toshihisa Toyoda of Shudo Univ. etc.)
• Representatives from JICA Colombia, and JICA Japan
• Yasuo Tanaka, RCUSS, Kobe Univ.
EMI: Earthquake Megacities Initiatives
FOPAE: Fondo de Prevención y Atención de Emergencias (Fund for Emergency
Prevention & Response)
JICA: Japan International Cooperation Agency
RCUSS: Research Center for Urban Safety and Security
UNDP: United Nations Development Programme
UNISDR: United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction
Natural hazards especially earthquakes always make great damage and loss in urban and rural areas. During the past two decades, the impacts of such hazards in urban places have been continuously increased. This is mainly because of inappropriate growth and development of cities, uncontrollable increase of population density in vulnerable urban areas due to immigration of people from villages to the cities for finding better living opportunities, unsustainable development of urban forms and patterns as well as urban infrastructures,
inappropriate population distribution along high risk areas, and many other issues.
Considering the vulnerability of urban areas to earthquake and other natural hazards, the United Nations organized World Disaster Reduction Campaign in 2010 and 2011 entitled as "Making Cities Resilient". In this regard, several activities were carried out in different countries. RCUSS, Kobe University is also organized a workshop in November 2010 about earthquake risk in mega urban areas and as one of the results of that workshop, it was decided to prepare a guideline for earthquake risk mitigation in urban places. For this purpose, a group of researchers from Middle East and North African Countries were assigned to prepare different parts of the manual. These activities were formulated into three main sections considering geological and geotechnical issues, building and urban infra-structures subjects, and disaster management elements. In each part, after introducing the subjects and the relevant challenges, the global experiences about each topic were reviewed, and some guidelines were presented to be considered for safe development of urban areas in seismic prone zones. This manual can be used by urban planners, as well as disaster management authorities as a guideline for organizing the relevant activities and implementing risk reduction measures.
1.3. Development of urban areas in Fault Zones
1.3.2. Development in fault zones
1.3.3. The global activities for surface faulting risk assessment and risk reduction
1.3.4. Main guidelines and criteria for reducing the impacts of fault rupture
1.4. Development of urban areas in liquefiable areas
1.4.2. Development in liquefaction hazard zones
1.4.3. The global activities for evaluation of liquefaction potential and risk reduction
1.4.4. Main guidelines and criteria for reducing the impacts of liquefaction
1.5. Development of urban fabrics in areas prone to land subsidence
1.5.2. Development in land subsidence prone areas
1.5.3. The global activities for evaluation of land subsidence
1.5.4. Main guidelines and criteria for reducing the impacts of land subsidence
Chapter 2 Structural and urban planning considerations
2.1. Evaluating the vulnerability of existing buildings in urban fabrics
2.1.2. Development of seismic codes for existing buildings
2.1.3. A review of the global experiences
2.1.4. Main guidelines for assessment the vulnerability of existing R/C buildings
2.2. The impacts of urban forms and patterns
2.2.2. Forms and patterns in seismic regions
2.2.3. The global activities for assessing the impacts of form and patterns in vulnerability
2.2.4. Main guidelines for considering form and pattern in seismic zones
2.3. Improving old and vulnerable urban fabrics
2.3.2. Identification of vulnerable urban fabrics to earthquakes
2.3.3. The global activities for assessing and improving vulnerable urban fabrics
2.3.4. Main guidelines for improving vulnerable urban fabrics in seismic zones
2.4. Road networks in earthquake prone zones
2.4.2. General guidelines for safe planning of road networks
2.4.3. Physical criteria for developing road network
2.5. Improving of urban infrastructures in seismic prone areas
2.5.2. Characteristics of resilient networks
2.5.3. A review of global experiences
2.5.4. Main guidelines for improving lifelines and infrastructure in urban fabrics
Chapter 3 Emergency management and urban developments
3.1. Developing disaster risk management master plans for urban areas
3.1.2. Components of earthquake risk mitigation and management master plans
3.1.3. Main guidelines for preparing risk management master plans
3.2. Vulnerability and loss estimation in seismic prone urban areas
3.2.2. Code and software of impact assessment
3.2.3. Main guidelines for assessment impacts of earthquakes
3.3. Developing Emergency response command centers (ERCC)
3.3.2. Main infrastructures necessary for developing ERCC
3.3.3. A review of the global activities for making ERCC
3.3.4. Main guidelines and criteria for developing ERCC
3.4. Developing rescue and relief bases in urban areas in earthquake prone zones
3.4.2. Improving rescue and relief activities
3.4.3. A review of the global activities
3.4.4. Main guidelines and criteria for developing rescue and relief bases
3.5. Developing emergency medical centers in urban areas in earthquake prone zones
3.5.2. Improving medical care service in mass emergency conditions
3.5.3. A review of the global experiences
3.5.4. Mass casualty’s management guidelines
3.6. Evacuation places in urban areas in earthquake prone zones
3.6.2. Planning for emergency evacuation
3.6.3. A review of the global experiences
3.6.4. General guidelines for developing evacuation plans